Publications by On the Move Partnership team members, including work arising out of On the Move-funded research, as well as relevant publications by team members supported through other grants and activities.
Journal articles (refereed):• Lehmann, Wolfgang, Allison Taylor and Zane Hamm. 2015. “‘Go West Young Man!’ Youth Apprenticeship and Opportunity Structures in Two Canadian Provinces.” Journal of Education and Work. 28(1): 44-65. Abstract.
Abstract: Most Canadian provinces offer high-school apprenticeships to facilitate students’ transitions to skilled work and address employers’ concerns about labour shortages. Using interview data with graduates from high-school apprenticeships in Alberta and Ontario, we analyse the impact participation in these programmes has had on their educational and occupational pathways. Findings show the importance of opportunity structures on the employment and education trajectories of young apprentices. High demands for skilled workers in Alberta, associated with the province’s exploration of large oil sands deposits, are contrasted with a contracting labour market in Ontario, which is more dependent on employment in the service and manufacturing sectors. Findings show that economic conditions and the availability of post-secondary alternatives affect young people’s decisions to enter and persist in apprenticeships. We also argue, however, that tighter regulatory frameworks are required to protect young people in apprenticeships from exploitative practices.
Reports:• Dorow, Sara, Marcella S. Cassiano and Chad Doerksen. January 2015. "Live-in Caregivers in Fort McMurray: A Socioeconomic Footprint."
About: This reportlooks at live-in caregivers (foreign nationals living in Canadian homes and employed to provide child or adult care) in the context of the oil sands region of northern Alberta. The report illuminates the importance of paid caregivers to the ability of the local workforce to keep up with the demands of employment and family, and examines caregivers’ work experiences, life plans, and views on Canada’s immigration policies.• Walsh, Deatra, Mary-Dan Johnston and Christine Saulnier. January 7, 2015."Great Expectations: Opportunities and Challenges for Young Workers in Newfoundland and Labrador." Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives: NS.
About: This report draws on the experience and insights of youth and employers, and serves as a check-in on the extensive research previously undertaken to develop a Youth Retention and Attraction Strategy for the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. It identifies clear tensions between the needs and expectations of young workers and employers’ ability to create opportunities and working environments to deal with such challenges. – See more at: https://www.policyalternatives.ca/publications/reports/great-expectations-nfl#sthash.ACKkzxkk.dpuf
Journal articles (refereed):• Barnetson, Bob, and Jason Foster. 2014. “The Political Justification of Employment-Related Geographic Mobility in Alberta.” Journal of International Migration and Integration. 15 (2): 349-370.
Abstract: Considering a series of oil-driven economic booms, the use of inter-provincial and international migrant labour has become an important part of labour market policy in the Canadian province of Alberta. The increased use of temporary foreign workers is controversial. Narrative analysis of legislators’ statements in the legislature and the press between 2000 and 2011 reveals the government using three narratives to justify policies encouraging greater use of foreign migrant workers: (1) labour shortages require migrant workers, (2) migrants do not threaten Canadian jobs and (3) migrants are not being exploited. Close scrutiny of each narrative demonstrates them to be largely invalid. This suggests a significant disconnect between the real and espoused reasons for the significant changes to labour market policy, changes that advantage employers and disadvantage both Canadian and foreign workers. The findings are relevant to understand the political dynamics of economically related migration.• Décosse, Frédéric. 2014. "Au-delà de l'usage contrôlé des pesticides: le risque chimique raconté par ceux qui l'affrontent." Journal des Professionels de la Santé au Travail 54: 1-8.• Foster, Jason. 2014. "From ‘Canadians First’ to ‘Workers Unite’: Evolving Union Narratives of Migrant Workers." Relations Industrielle/Industrial Relations. 69(2): 241-265.
Abstract: The rapid influx of temporary foreign workers (TFWs) into Canada in the early 2000s posed significant challenges to Canadian unions. Using narrative analysis, this paper examines how union leaders constructed narratives about TFWs in the period 2006 to 2012. It finds three temporally sequential narrative arcs: prioritizing of Canadian workers’ interests and portrayal of TFWs as employer pawns; TFWs as vulnerable workers needing union advocacy for their employment and human rights; and posteconomic crisis conflicted efforts to integrate Canadian and TFW interests. The narrative arcs are shaped by tensions between internal pressures on union leaders and their external contexts. The analysis reveals that union leaders’ responsibility to represent members can clash with their broader values of social justice and equality. By linking the contemporary reaction to TFWs to labour’s historical approach to immigration and race, the paper also reveals important continuities and interruptions in labour’s relationship with migrants.• Gravel, Sylvie, Francisco Villanueva, Stéphanie Berstein, Jill Hanley, Daniel Crespo, and Emmanuelle Ostiguy. 2014. “Les mesures de santé et sécurité au travail auprès des travailleurs étrangers temporaires dans les entreprises saisonnières.” Pistes 16(2).
Abstract: Une analyse des pratiques préventives en santé et sécurité au travail (SST) a été faite dans le cadre d’une étude portant sur les enjeux de gestion ainsi que les conditions de travail et de vie des travailleurs étrangers temporaires (TÉT) employés dans les secteurs de l’horticulture, de la transformation alimentaire et autres secteurs non agricoles. Cette analyse qualitative s’est basée sur deux sources de données. Des entrevues individuelles ont été menées auprès d’employeurs (n = 17), de représentants d’organismes non gouvernementaux (n = 13), de commissions de protection des travailleurs (n = 3) et des représentants gouvernementaux (n = 7). Quatre focus groups ont été réalisés avec des TÉT (n = 31). Selon les répondants, la fréquence des lésions chez les TÉT ne suscite pas de préoccupations particulières, bien que les instances publiques de surveillance de la SST ne soient pas en mesure de documenter la situation des TÉT. Les résultats de l’analyse indiquent que les pratiques préventives de SST sont inégales, allant des pires (résumé en espagnol des consignes inscrites dans le guide des employés) aux meilleures pratiques (vidéos, simulations, formations adaptées en espagnol, pictogrammes) incluant le compagnonnage avec un contremaître hispanophone ou bilingue. Selon les représentants consulaires et syndicaux, deux problèmes de SST méritent une attention particulière : la manipulation des pesticides et les accidents routiers. Plusieurs pratiques de SST auprès des TÉT devraient être améliorées, notamment les formations sur les manipulations sécuritaires des pesticides, pratique qui devrait être imposée à toutes les entreprises, grandes et petites. L’adaptation des mesures de protection de la SST est une obligation morale envers les TÉT qui font partie intégrante de l’économie québécoise.• Hanley, Jill, Sylvie Gravel, and Katherine Lippel. 2014. “Pathways to Healthcare for Migrant Workers: How Can Health Entitlement Influence Occupational Health Trajectories?” Pistes 16(2).
Abstract: Cet article présente les résultats d’une étude exploratoire sur l’accès aux services de santé des migrants à statut précaire. Une enquête a été menée auprès de 211 hommes et femmes migrants, et parmi ceux-ci, 31 ont été retenus pour un entretien en profondeur. Pour cet article, nous présentons les résultats concernant 78 travailleurs comprenant ceux recrutés en tant que travailleurs (travailleurs étrangers temporaires) ou qui n’ont pas d’accès au filet de sécurité sociale et doivent habituellement travailler (les sans-papiers). Une revue de la littérature est présentée, reliant le statut migratoire à l’accès aux soins de santé et aux problèmes de santé au travail. Nous présentons la méthodologie et ensuite les résultats qui décrivent les réseaux sociaux auxquels les travailleurs migrants ont recours pour répondre à leurs préoccupations en matière de santé, comprenant notamment les professionnels du Québec, et des ressources transnationales en santé. Ces résultats pourront être utiles aux professionnels de la SST pour comprendre certains obstacles auxquels font face les travailleurs migrants ayant subi un accident du travail ou une maladie professionnelle. Les difficultés d’accès aux soins de santé peuvent-elles compromettre le recours des travailleurs migrants victimes de lésions professionnelles ?• Haan, Michael, Deatra Walsh, and Barbara Neis. 2014. “At the Crossroads: Geography, Gender, and Occupational Sector in Employment-Related Geographical Mobility.” Canadian Studies in Population 41 (3-4): 6-21.
Abstract: In Canada, patterns of employment-related geographical mobility (E-RGM) are becoming more complex and nuanced, with implications for employers, workers, and their families. This article introduces the concept of E-RGM, and argues that because mobility is a pervasive aspect of working lives in Canada, it deserves more systematic and extensive research. To date, most studies of labour mobility have focused on permanent relocation or short-distance daily commuting. We argue for more research that disaggregates the socio-economic characteristics of those engaged in E-RGM and untangles its complexity. Using the 2006 Canadian confidential master file to create a statistical portrait of E-RGM reveals considerable variation among the Canadian working population, particularly those engaging in more extensive work journeys.• Smith, Angèle, and Jeremy Staveley. 2014. “Towards an Ethnography of Mobile Tourist Industry Workers in Banff National Park.” Anthropologica, Journal of the Canadian Anthropology Society. 56.2: 435-447.
Abstract: While there is much anthropological literature concerning transnational mobility and identity of migrants and refugees, tourists and even entrepreneurs, less explored is the great complexity of the many different factions within mobile worker communities of resort destinations. If it is unexpected that these tourism workers are understudied, it is even more surprising given that they are key agents in (re)producing the identity and character of the place, which they then “sell” to tourists. At the same time, the identity of tourism workers is profoundly shaped by their experiences. This article examines approaches for studying the experiences of travel, work and life in Banff National Park.• Taylor, Allison, Lehmann Wolfgang, and Milosh Raykov. 2014. “Should I Stay or Should I Go? Exploring High School Apprentices’ Pathways.” Journal of Education and Work.
Abstract: Completion rates are one measure of the success of apprenticeship training. But little is known about outcomes for youth who begin an apprenticeship in high school. This paper draws primarily on interviews with youth who did not continue training or work in their high school apprenticeship trade in two Canadian provinces. Our analysis focuses on why these youth decided to enrol in high school apprenticeship, why they did not continue and what they did afterwards. Findings suggest that a narrow focus on apprenticeship training completion diverts attention from the complex learning and work transitions experienced by most youth. Instead of assuming a linear pathway from school-to-trades work, we argue that partners involved in high school apprenticeship and policy-makers could do more to raise student awareness of multiple trajectories and skills transfer, make apprenticeship training more expansive, and increase the flexibility of pathways by providing greater articulation between different post-secondary education pathways and opportunities to change direction.• Taylor, Allison and Jason Foster. 2014. “Migrant Workers and the Problem of Social Cohesion in Canada.” Journal of International Migration and Integration.
Abstract: This paper explores the Canadian Temporary Foreign Worker Program (TFWP) drawing on the concept of “social cohesion,” a concept that was prominent in federal political discourse in the late 1990s. Social cohesion has value in highlighting the social impacts of shifts in policy at individual, group, and societal levels. Our case studies of temporary foreign workers in nursing and trades in Alberta suggest that the TFWP encourages low trust and sense of belonging among migrant workers and resistance from domestic workers because it promotes inequality and exclusion. The inability of most migrant workers to access settlement services, to bring families, to change employers, or to enroll in further education and training overtly discourages their integration into the local community. The TFWP also impacts the domestic workforce and citizenry by creating a new class of workers and non-citizens without the same rights. The dynamics observed at a workplace level predictably impact local communities and Canadian society overall as patterns of diversity are destabilized, values of fairness and equal opportunity are challenged, and norms of reciprocity are weakened.
Journal articles (non-refereed):• Lippel, Katherine. (December 2014.) “Enjeux de la mobilité intra-nationale en ce qui concerne l’accès aux regimes de protection sociale.” Droits et libertés, [Bulletin de la Ligue des droits et libertés de la personne du Québec].
Reports:• Hall, Heather. October 2014. “Regional development, nickel processing and labour mobility: A comparison of Sudbury ON and Long Harbour NL.” Working paper for the 2014 Faculty of Arts Postdoctoral Fellowship and the Nickel Processing Component of the On the Move Partnership.
About: This research has four objectives. The first objective is to explore the nature and extent of employment—related geographical mobility (E-RGM) in the nickel-processing sector in Long Harbour, NL and Sudbury, ON while the second objective is to highlight potential factors influencing mobility in these contexts. The third objective is to assess the impacts of E-RGM on these communities and the final objective is to identify the respective responses to E-RGM by company officials, all levels of government, and other community organizations. Both communities have nickel-processing facilities owned by Brazilian-based Vale, one of the largest nickel producers in the world. This provides an interesting look at the impact of institutional context on E-RGM.
Journal articles (refereed):• Baglay, Sasha, and Delphine Nakache. 2013. “The Implications of Immigration Federalism for Non-Citizens’ Rights and Immigration Opportunities: Canada and Australia Compared.” American Review of Canadian Studies 43(3): 334-357.
Abstract: This article explores the development of immigration federalism in Australia and Canada (expressed through the establishment of state/provincial/territorial immigrant selection programs) and its implications for immigrants’ rights and immigration opportunities. Given the very limited scholarship on the issue, and the lack of previous comparative studies on immigration federalism in Australia and Canada, our research is exploratory by nature. Our finding is that provincial/state/territorial programs offer some advantages to prospective applicants (such as increased immigration opportunities), but, at the same time, raise a number of concerns (such as an increased dependence on employers). As our study reveals, the costs and benefits of immigration opportunities under state/provincial/territorial programs differ for skilled and low-skilled workers, whereby the latter are given only limited access to permanent residence, and on more onerous conditions than skilled workers. Drawing on these findings, we identify areas in need of further research and policy response.• Décosse, Frédéric. 2013. “Entre ‘usage contrôlé’, invisibilisation et externalisation. Le précariat étranger face au risque chimique en agriculture intensive." Sociologie du travail 55(3): 322-340. (http://www.sociologiedutravail.org)
Abstract: À partir des récits et parcours d’ouvriers marocains embauchés par le biais des contrats saisonniers de l’Office des migrations internationales (OMI), cet article montre comment le gouvernement du risque chimique en agriculture autorise la circulation de substances toxiques dans le milieu de travail. En mettant en place un cadre réglementaire d’exposition, l’« usage contrôlé » des pesticides produit des contaminations « clandestines » et permet la non-prise en charge des affections contractées. Il s’agit alors de répondre à la question suivante : comment l’immigration saisonnière OMI organise-t-elle à la fois l’invisibilisation des expositions professionnelles aux pesticides et l’externalisation des pathologies ?• Décosse, Frédéric. 2013. “‘Immigrés, solidarité!’ Histoire d'une lutte, envers d'un slogan.” Hommes et Migrations. 1301: 93-101.
Abstract: Pour les travailleurs migrants saisonniers, le droit au séjour est conditionné par la durée de leur contrat de travail. Face à des conditions de vie précaires, la grève des saisonniers marocains dans le Loiret au printemps 1980 marque une volonté de lutter pour la libre circulation sur le marché du travail. Mais cette mobilisation, devenue le théâtre d’une lutte des syndicats pour prendre la tête du mouvement social, témoigne également de l’instrumentalisation du fait migratoire.• Dorow, Sara, and Sara O'Shaughnessy. 2013. “Fort McMurray, Wood Buffalo and the Oil/Tar Sands: Revisiting the Sociology of ‘Community.’” Introduction to the Special Issue. Canadian Journal of Sociology. 38(2): 121-140.• Foster, Jason, and Allison Taylor. 2013. “In the Shadows: Exploring the Notion of ‘Community’ for Temporary Foreign Workers in a Boom Town.” Canadian Journal of Sociology. 38(2): 167-190.
Abstract: The rapid expansion of the oil sands in northern Alberta in the early 21st century led to the use of significant numbers of temporary foreign workers. These foreign workers became a part of the region’s so-called “shadow population.” This paper examines how the presence of foreign workers affects conceptions of community and social cohesion through the experiences of foreign workers employed in oil sands construction. The study finds foreign workers are excluded from the life of the community due to their differential exclusion, vulnerable and precarious connection to the labour market, experiences of discrimination, and conflicted transnational community identities. The paper discusses the shortcomings of community and social cohesion approaches in addressing temporary foreign workers and considers the policy limitations of a widespread temporary foreign worker program.• Grzywacz, Joseph G., Hester J. Lipscomb, Vanessa Casanova, Barbara Neis, Clermont Fraser, Paul Monaghan and Qurinia M. Vallejos. 2013. “Organization of Work in the Agricultural, Forestry, and Fishing Sector in the US Southeast: Implications for Immigrant Workers’ Occupational Safety and Health.” American Journal of Industrial Medicine 56(8): 925-39.
Abstract: There is widespread agreement that work organization is an important element of occupational safety and health, but the health effects of many aspects of work organization are likely to vary considerably across different sectors of work and geographies. We examined existing employment policies and work organization-related research relevant specifically to immigrant workers in the Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing (AgFF) Sector of the US workforce focusing, when possible, on the southeastern US. A number of specific aspects of work organization within AgFF subsectors have been described, but most of this literature exists outside the purview of occupational health. There are few studies that directly examine how attributes of work organization relevant to the AgFF Sector affect workers’, much less immigrant workers’, occupational health exposures and outcomes. In contrast to the broader literature, research linking occupational health outcomes to work organization in the AgFF Sector is limited and weak. A systematic program of research and intervention is needed to develop strategies that eliminate or substantially mitigate the deleterious health effects of occupational exposures whose origins likely lie in the organization of AgFF work.
Journal articles (non-refereed):Foster, Jason. 2013. “Temporary Foreign Workers: Issues in Integration and Inclusion.” HUMAN Captial Magazine (Human Resources Institute of Alberta), 15(4): 12-5. (http://www.nxtbook.com)
2012 and 2011
Journal articles (refereed):
- Foster, Jason. 2012. “Making Temporary Permanent: The Silent Transformation of the Temporary Foreign Worker Program.” Just Labour. 19: 22-46. (www.justlabour.yorku.ca)
- Taylor, Allison, Jason Foster and Carolina Cambre. 2012. “Training ‘expendable’ workers: Temporary foreign workers in nursing.” Globalisation, Societies and Education 10(1) 95-117.
- Temple, Julia, Barbara Neis, Lois Jackson, Sharon R. Roseman, Paula Romanow and Chrissy Vincent. 2011 “Employment-Related Mobility and the Health of Workers, Families, and Communities: The Canadian Context.” Labour/Le Travail 67: 121-156. (http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/labour_le_travail)
- Vincent, Chrissy, and Barbara Neis. 2011. “Work and Family Life: Parental Work Conditions and Children’s Academic Achievement.” Community, Work and Family. 14(4): 449-468. (http://www.tandfonline.com)